Tutorial 1: Ground-Fault Protection – Principles and Applications


Ground faults comprise approximately 98% of all electrical failures impacting an industrial power system. Hence, the ability to detect ground faults and respond timely is paramount. In this tutorial, the principles of ground-fault protection (protective relay technologies, detection methods, proper operation, testing, and installation problems), their applications, and code requirements in Canada and the US are described. The goal is to help protection engineers, engineering consultants, and power system operators to apply ground-fault protection systems correctly, while complying with local electrical codes.


Nehad El-Sherif, M.Sc., P.Eng., MBA, SMIEEE is the Founder and President of MNKYBR Technologies Inc., a Canadian company specialized in R&D and engineering services. El-Sherif is a Professional Electrical Engineer with experience in software & hardware design, new product development, product certification, business development, product management, sales & marketing, and electrical safety. He authored and co-authored IEEE peer-reviewed papers, technical articles, white papers and delivered technical presentations at various industry conferences. El-Sherif is a senior member of IEEE and an executive board member of IEEE Industry Applications Society (IAS) and IEEE Canada. He serves on NFPA Code Making Panel 2 (CMP-2) for the continued development of the National Electrical Code (NFPA 70), CSA Z462 (Workplace Electrical Safety Standard) technical committee, as well as various UL and CSA product safety certification standards technical panels. El-Sherif received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Electrical Engineering from Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt and an MBA from the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. He is a sessional lecturer at the University of Saskatchewan and holds two patents