Tutorials

1. Fundamentals of Power System Protection Design

Instructor: Paul Nyombi, PE

Safe and reliable operation of any power system requires a fast, selective, secure, and dependable system protection package.  Application of a protection package or more specifically protection relays require a good understanding of how the system behaves electrically, at the relay location, during abnormal system conditions. For selective tripping and protection of power system equipment, protection and control designers need to clearly identify the protection boundaries of the different system equipment, also known as local zones of protection. This, in part requires a good understanding of symmetrical components concepts as they are immensely vital in selecting protection schemes to use.  In this tutorial, fundamentals of identifying/establishing zones of protection, basics of symmetrical components, application of basic protection schemes to the different power system equipment, and the challenges associated with the protection of distributed energy resources, will be discussed.

Although the design of protection relays has evolved over the years, from single function electromechanical relays to modern day multifunction microprocessor relays, what has not changed are the operating principles. With a few selected examples, and using both electromechanical relays and microprocessor relays, the tutorial will also be used to illustrate how knowledge of symmetrical components is applied to system protection.

Paul Nyombi is a Principal System Protection Engineer with Hunt Utility Services in Dallas, Texas where he leads transmission system protection relay settings, and protection philosophy development initiatives. Prior to this role, he worked for Xcel Energy in Minneapolis, MN, as a Senior System Protection Engineer, where he worked with transmission system protective relays and their settings. He has over eight (8) years of experience as a relay protection engineer.
Paul also teaches a graduate level course, “Power System Protection and Relaying Basics” at the University of St. Thomas, St. Paul, MN. He is a professional engineer in the state of Minnesota. He holds a BSc. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, and MSc. in Electrical Engineering from St. Thomas University, St. Paul, Minnesota.

2. Lightning Protection History and Basics

Instructors: Dr. Robert A Durham and John Nelson, PE

Lightning is an awe-inspiring natural phenomenon. Portions of Africa have the highest incidence of lightning occurrences annually. Lightning is a high power, high frequency, high voltage, high current event that causes deaths, injuries and millions of dollars of destruction each year. Nevertheless, as evidenced by facilities that successfully, and without damage, accept multiple lightning events per year, personnel, facilities and equipment can be successfully protected from lightning damage. This tutorial will explore the origins of lightning protection, some of the permutations that lightning protection has taken over the past 150 years, as well as the state of the art in lightning protection practices and standards. Additionally, the status of so-called alternative lightning protection systems will be examined in light of their efficacy and adherence to standards.